INKURU IDASANZWE: UBUHAMYA BW’IBANGA RIKOMEYE BUSHYIRA MU MAJWI PEREZIDA W’U RWANDA KU BYAHA BY’INTAMBARA

Mu ibanga rikomeye, abacukumbuzi b’umuryango w’abibumbye bamaze imyaka myinshi begeranya ibimenyetso byerekana uruhare rwa perezida Kagame Pawulo n’ibyegera bye by’abanyarwanda mu bwicanyi bwibasiye imbaga y’abantu mbere ya jenoside yo mu w’1994, hagati muri jenoside, na nyuma yayo. Ibyo bimenyetso simusiga byatanzwe n’abasirikare b’abatutsi bitandukanyije n’ubutegetsi buriho, hanyuma biyemeza guhara amagara yabo bashyira hanze amabanga bari bazi. Ubwo buhamya bwabo, banaburahiriye imbere y’urukiko rw’umuryango w’abibumbye, bwavuguruzaga inkuru kimomo y’ukuntu igihugu cyituye mu icuraburindi ry’urugomo n’ubwicanyi, inkuru yagaragazaga Kagame na Efuperi ye nk’abacunguzi b’igihugu. N’ubwo habayeho ubwo buhamya, urukiko rw’ibyaha by’intambara rw’umuryango w’abibumbye -ku busabe bwa leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika- ntirwigeze na rimwe rukurikirana Kagame n’abayobozi be b’ingabo. Ariko ubu noneho, bwa mbere mu mateka, igice kitari gito cy’ibimenyetso bifitwe n’umuryango w’abibumbye, nyuma yo kunonosorwa, gishyizwe ku ka rubanda.

Ubuhamya bunonosoye mwabusanga hano.

Judi Rever na Benedigito Moran

Mu ntangiriro za Nyakanga 1994, ubwo jenoside yariho irangira mu Rwanda, Kiristofu, utahishurwa mu mazina ye cyangwa aho atuye ku pamvu z’umutekano we, yinjijwe muri Efuperi-Inkotanyi yari iyobowe n’abatutsi. Kirisitofu, wigaga ubuvuzi mbere y’intambara, yoherejwe kwita ku nkomere za gisirikare za Efuperi ahitwa i Masaka, mu majyepfo y’uburasirazuba bw’umurwa mukuru wa Kigali.

Efuperi yari hafi gutsinda intambara bidasubirwaho. Yari indunduro y’imeneka ry’amaraso ryatangiye mu w’1990 ubwo ingabo za Efuperi zateraga u Rwanda zivuye mu birindiro byazo i Buganda, aho imiryango y’abatutsi yari yaraheze mu buhunzi mu gihe cy’imyaka mirongwitatu.

Intambara yabo yo gushaka ubutegetsi mu Rwanda yinjiye mu ikorosi rikaze ku ya 6 Mata 1994, igihe indege yari itwaye Habyarimana Yuvenali, perezida w’u Rwanda w’umuhutu, yahanurirwaga i Kigali, abari bayirimo bose bagapfa, maze amasezerano y’isaranganya ry’ubutegetsi akaburizwamo inkubirane, kandi yari agamije kurangiza intambara n’urugomo byari bimaze imyaka itatu n’igice. Iraswa ry’indege ryakongeje ubuhotozi ndengakamere bwisasiye ibihumbi amagana by’abatutsi, abenshi bakaba barahitanywe n’abahutu bari basangiye igihugu. Byageze hagati muri Nyakanga Efuperi imaze kurandura leta y’abahutu, ndetse inavugwaho guhagarika ubwicanyi.

Nyamara Kirisitofu, aho yari ari ku ivuriro ry’urugamba i Masaka, yabonye ko ubwicanyi bwari bugikomeje. Aherutse kubwira ikinyamakuru M&G, ati: “Abantu bararigiswaga”. Hari benshi mu bakurutu (abarikiri) Kirisitofu yavuraga batangiye kujya bamubwira idonido inkuru ziteye ubwoba z’ibyo basabwaga gukorera abaturage b’abahutu barimo abagabo, abagore n’abana, byabonekaga ko ntaho bahuriye n’iyicwa ry’abatutsi. Bavugaga ko abo bahutu bashimutwaga n’abambari ba Efuperi babakuye mu bice binyuranye by’umurwa mukuru, bakabajyanwa mu kigo cy’impfubyi cya mutagatifu Agata cyari hafi aho, akaba ariho bahotorerwa.

Abo bana b’abakurutu babwiraga Kirisitofu ko basabwaga n’abakuru babo bo muri Efuperi kuboha abasivili no kubicisha inyundo n’amafuni, mbere yo guhita babatwikira ahongaho no gutaba ivu ryabo. Bamubwiraga ako kazi bakoreshwaga buri munsi kakuraga umutima kakanahahamura. Abenshi mu basirikare bingingiraga Kirisitofu kubasinyira urupapuro rw’ikiruhuko cy’uburwayi kugira ngo barebe ko baba baruhutseho kwirirwa bahotora abantu. Yaragize ati: “Ntibifuzaga kugira uwo bica”. Umwe muri abo barikiri yabwiye Kirisitofu ko mu aho mu kigo cy’imfubyi hiciwe abantu barenga ibihumbi bitandatu mu minsi itanu yonyine.

Mu mpera za Nyakanga, Efuperi yohereje Kirisitofu n’ibihumbi by’abandi bakurutu mu kigo cy’imyitozo cya Gabiro. Icyo kigo giherereye mu burasirazuba bw’u Rwanda, mu nkengero z’ishyamba rigari rigize pariki y’igihugu y’Akagera. Ingabo z’inyeshyamba zari zarahashyize ibirindiro intambara itararangira, ku buryo nta mukozi w’imiryango mpuzamahanga itegamiye kuri leta, uwa loni cyangwa se umunyamakuru, washoboraga kuhakandagiza ikirenge.

Efuperi yari yaratangiye kwinjiza mu gisirikare abagabo b’abahutu, ikabizeza umutekano mu gihe baba biyemeje kwiyegurira Efuperi. Ni benshi muri bo bitabiriye ubutumire. Gusa ibyababayeho i Gabiro byeretse Kirisitofu ko abo basore b’abahutu bari barabeshywe. Aho guhabwa imyitozo, iyo bageragayo batangiraga kuvangurwa n’intasi za gisirikare, bakerekezwa mu kibuga bagahita baraswa. Yavuze ko n’abakurutu b’abatutsi bavuye muri Kongo, i Burundi n’i Buganda, barigiswaga iyo abamaneko ba gisirikare babakekagaho kutayoboka cyangwa se ubugambanyi.

Icyakuye Kirisitofu umutima kurushaho, ni amakamyo yuzuye abasivili b’abahutu yaboneraga ahirengeye yinjirira ku rundi ruhande rw’ikigo. Yavuze ko hashize amezi menshi nta munsi w’ubusa Efuperi itica abo bahutu, hanyuma igatwika imirambo yabo.

Kateripirari zakoraga amanywa n’ijoro zihamba ibisigazwa. Kirisitofu avugana n’ikinyamakuru M&G yaragize ati: “Wabonaga amakamyo, wabonaga umwotsi. Wumvaga umunuko w’imibiri igurumana”. “Ayo makamyo yose yariho atunda abantu baje kwicwa. Nabonye kateripilari, narayumvise n’amatwi yanjye. Byose babikoraga nk’inzobere.”

Ubwo bwicanyi bwakomeje ubudahagarara, biza kugeza aho Kirisitofu ubwe yatangiye kwikanga ko kubibona n’amaso ye byazatuma amaherezo nawe agenzwa nk’abandi. Hari abasirikare bamwe bahahamurwaga n’ibyo bahatirwaga gukora bakagerageza gutoroka Gabiro. Yavuze ko ibyago byabo ari uko bahitaga bafatwa bakicwa. Yiruhukije muri Mata 1995, ubwo yimurirwaga ahandi akavanwa i Gabiro, hanyuma hashira icyumweru kimwe gusa agahita atoroka u Rwanda ubutazarugarukamo.

Nyuma y’imyaka myinshi yarahunze, Kirisotofu yatangiye kwirekurira abacukumbuzi b’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rw’umuryango w’abibumbye rwashyiriweho u Rwanda. Urwo rukiko rwashyizweho jenoside ikirangira ruhabwa inshingano zo gukurikirana ibyaha biruta ibindi byakozwe mu mwaka w’1994. Mu bigaragara, urwo rukiko rwahisemo kutagira undi rukurikirana uretse ibikomerezwa by’abahutu byakekwagaho gutegura no gushyira mu bikorwa jenoside yakorewe abatutsi. Ariko hirya y’ibigaragara, abagize itsinda ry’ibanga ry’urwo rukiko, ryitwaga Itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe, begeranyije ibimenyetso ku byaha byakozwe na Efuperi. Byageze mu mwaka wa 2003, abacukumbuzi bo mu itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe bamaze kubona abatangabuhamya babarirwa mu magana, muri bo ababarirwa muri mirongo bakaba baremeye kurahirira ubuhamya bwabo.

Nk’uko bigaragara mu cyegeranyo cya raporo yashyikirijwe umushinjacyaha mukuru w’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwa loni mu mwaka w’2003, itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe ryari ryaregeranyije ibimenyetso simusiga bishinja Efuperi. Abatangabuhamya benshi bunze mu rya Kirisitofu bemeza ko Efuperi yakoze ubwicanyi bw’abasivili b’abahutu i Gabiro ndetse n’ahandi henshi mbere ya jenoside, hagati muri jenoside na nyuma yayo. Abatangabuhamya bahamirije itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe ko Efuperi ariyo yahanuye indege ya Habyarimana ku italiki ya gatandatu Mata. Abahoze mu gisirikare banabwiye abacukumbuzi ko abakomando ba Efuperi biyoberanyaga bakagaba ibitero ku buryo ntawari kubakeka. Bamwe mu bakomando ngo biyambikaga imyenda ya gisivili bagacengera mu ntagondwa z’abahutu, zizwi ku izina ry’Interahamwe, mu mugambi wo kuzishishikariza kwica abatutsi benshi kurushaho, ikigambiriwe kikaba kwari ugushaka kwerekana uburyo leta y’abahutu ari ruvumwa birenze, no kongerera Efuperi icyizere n’ukwemerwa mu maso y’umuryango mpuzamahanga.

Muri iyo raporo, abacukumbuzi b’umuryango w’abibumbye bakoze urutonde rw’abantu ba Efuperi bashobora gukurikiranwa no gushyirirwaho impapuro zo gutabwa muri yombi, barimo na perezida Kagame Pawulo ubwe. Gusa icyagaragaye ni uko ubwo urukiko rw’umuryango w’abibumbye rwafungaga imiryango mu mwaka w’2015, abarenga mirongwitandatu baciriwe urubanza bakanafungwa kubera ibyaha bya jenoside n’ibindi byaha by’intambara, bose bari abo muri leta y’abahutu yavuyeho. Nta rwandiko na rumwe rw’ifatwa loni yigeze itangira Efuperi; ibimenyetso byose by’amabi ya Efuperi byahambwe kure cyane. Kirisitofu yahuye n’abacukumbuzi inshuro eshatu zose, akaba buri gihe yarahaga urukiko ubuhamya bwanditse akagerekaho n’indahiro, ariko ubu hashize hafi imyaka makumyabili yose ubwo buhamya bwe, kimwe n’ubw’abandi basirikare ba Efuperi babarirwa muri mirongo babonye ubuhotozi bwa Efuperi, bwarafungiwe ahantu hatagerwa ho mu bushyinguro bw’inyandiko z’urukiko.

Muri iyi nkuru idasanzwe, ikinyamakuru Mail & Guardian kirashyira hanze inyandiko mirongwitatu n’imwe (31) zishingiye ku buhamya ababihagazeho bahaye abacukumbuzi b’umuryango w’abibumbye. Izo nyandiko zahishuriwe ikinyamakuru M&G n’abantu banyuranye bafite ubunararibonye budashidikanywaho mu rukiko rw’umuryango w’abibumbye. Kuko inyandikomvugo z’abatangabuhamya zigaragaza amazina n’ibindi byatuma bamenyekana, zabanje kunonosorwa n’urukiko ndetse n’ikinyamakuru M&G, ku bw’umutekano w’abatangamakuru. Abatangamakuru bahaye urukiko ubuhamya ku bwicanyi bwa Efuperi, bahuye n’akaga ko kwikanga ubugizi bwa nabi, ndetse abacukumbuzi bemeza ko bamwe muri bo bashimuswe. Gusa, abaduhaye amakuru basa n’abemeza ko Efuperi igomba kuba ifite inyandikomvugo z’abatangabuhamya z’umwimerere uko zakabaye. Hari ubuhamya bumwe bwarekewe uko buri kubera ko nyirabwo yitabye Imana mu w’2010.

Kuva mu mwaka w’1994, abantu benshi barimo abaharanira uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu, abanyamakuru n’inzobere mu by’amategeko mu rukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rw’umuryango w’abibumbye rwashyiriweho u Rwanda, bagiye batsimbarara ku kuvuga ko ubwicanyi bwakozwe na Efuperi budashobora kugereranywa n’ubuhotozi intagondwa z’abahutu zakoreye abatutsi, haba mu buryo bwakozwe, icyari kigambiriwe, cyangwa se uko bwateguwe. Leta y’u Rwanda yemeje ko ubwicanyi bwose bwaba bwarakozwe n’abantu bo muri Efuperi bwari ibikorwa byo kwihorera nta kindi, kandi ko ababukoze babihaniwe n’inzego z’igihugu zibishinzwe. Ikigaragara ni uko ibyo bivuguruzwa n’ubu buhamya bubonekamo amakuru asesuye kandi ateye urumeza ku buhotozi bwakozwe na Efuperi — akenshi bwagiye butangwa n’abasirikare bagize uruhare mu bwicanyi buvugwa -. N’ubwo izi nkuru atari gihamya y’icyaha, ariko zishobora kuba ibimenyetso byihuse byakwifashishwa mu kugira ngo habeho ugushinja. Muri rusange, ibimenyetso byegeranyijwe n’itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe bigaragaza ko ubwicanyi bwakozwe na Efuperi butari ibikorwa byo guhorera abatutsi, ahubwo bwari ubwicanyi bwateguwe neza kandi wari umugambi ufite icyo ugamije. Umunsi byemejwe n’urukiko, bizagaragarira buri wese ko Efuperi yagize uruhare rutaziguye mu gukoma imbarutso ya jenoside ubwo yaturitsaga indege ya perezida Habyarimana, hakiyongeraho ko abakuru bayo bashyize mu bikorwa itsembambaga ry’abaturage b’abasivili barobanurwaga, haba mbere ya jenoside, hagati muri jenoside cyangwa se nyuma ya jenoside.

Abenshi mu bayobozi b’ingabo za Efuperi bagize uruhare mu bwicanyi bwagaragajwe n’itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe, bagiye bahabwa imyanya ikomeye muri guverinoma no mu gisirikari cy’u Rwanda, ndetse bamwe baracyanayirimo. Kagame Pawulo, ariwe wari umugaba mukuru wa Efuperi mu gihe cya jenoside y’1994, yabaye perezida w’u Rwanda guhera mu mwaka w’2000 kugeza n’ubu, kandi aracyari inshuti ya hafi ya leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika. Nyamvumba Patirike, wahoze ayobora ikigo cy’amahugurwa cya Gabiro, yabaye umugaba mukuru w’ingabo z’u Rwanda kuva mu mwaka w’2013 kugeza mu w’2019, mu gihe mbere yaho, hagati y’umwaka wa 2009 na 2013, yabaye umugaba w’ingabo zirinda amahoro ku isi muri Sudani, zihuriweho na loni n’umuryango w’ubumwe bw’Afurika. Yanabaye minisitiri w’umutekano kugeza muri Mata 2020. Kabarebe Jemusi, wavuzweho n’abatangabuhamya kugira uruhare rukomeye cyane mu bwicanyi bwabereye mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda no mu gutegura ihotorwa rya Habyarimana, yabaye minisitiri w’ingabo kuva mu mwaka wa 2010 kugeza muri 2018, kandi n’ubu aracyari umujyanama mukuru wa Kagame Pawulo. Jenerali Kayumba Nyamwasa, ariwe wayoboraga ubutasi bwa gisirikare bwa Efuperi buzwi ku izina rya demayi mu gihe cya jenoside, avugwaho kuba ariwe watekereje kandi agatunganya umugambi wa Efuperi wo gucengera mu nsoresore z’abicanyi b’abahutu, ndetse n’umugambi mugari w’itsembabahutu ryakorewe abaturage b’abahutu mu gihugu hose. Kayumba Nyamwasa yahunze igihugu muri 2010, akaba ari umwe mu bantu bakomeye barwanya leta bari mu mahanga.

Ibiro by’ishyaka Efuperi, ibiro bya perezida wa Repuburika y’u Rwanda, inama nkuru y’ itangazamakuru, ndetse na Kayumba Nyamwasa, ubu uri mu buhungiro, ntibigeze basubiza ubwo basabwaga kugira icyo bavuga kuri izi nyandiko. Ku rubuga rwe rwa “twita”, umujyanama wa perezida Kagame witwa Makolo Yolanda, yateye utwatsi ubusabe bw’ikinyamakuru Mail & Guardian ku bijyanye n’izi nyandiko, avuga ko ubwo busabe atari ubwo busabe “nta gaciro bukwiye guhabwa”.

Reyinjensi Filipo, umubirigi w’umusesenguzi mu bya politiki, akaba yaramaze imyaka mirongo yiga u Rwanda, kandi nk’impuguke akaba yarahaye ubuhamya urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rw’umuryango w’abibumbye rwashyiriweho u Rwanda, yavuze ko ukwemerwa kwa Efuperi gushingiye ku gukiza abatutsi no guhagarika jenoside, bityo gucukumbura byimbitse ibyo Efuperi ubwayo yaba yarakoze bikaba byatesha agaciro inkuru z’ibyabaye uko zivugwa na leta.

Reyinjensi yabwiye ikinyamakuru M&G ko “Ukwemerwa kwa Efuperi ahanini gushingiye ku kuba abantu bayifata nk’aho ihagarariye ikanarengera abarokotse jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu mwaka w’1994. Ni ‘abantu beza’. Ikimenyetso cyose cyerekana ko Efuperi yatsembye imbaga cyangwa se yagize uruhare mu guhanura indege ya perezida, igikorwa cyakongeje jenoside, gituma habaho ugushidikanya kuri ubwo buryo Efuperi yemerwa, iyo ikaba ariyo mpamvu abo muri Efuperi bakirwanya bivuye inyuma n’imbaraga zabo zose.”

Kirisitofu, wabwiye M&G amagambo n’ubuhamya bisa n’iby’abandi batangabuhamya batanze ubuhamya nk’ubwe, yavuze ko yemera ko ubwicanyi yiboneye i Gabiro budashobora kuba ibikorwa byo kwihorera ku buhotozi abahutu ku giti cyabo bakoze muri jenoside. Ubuhotozi bwa Efuperi bwarakomeje, ndetse yavuze ko “bwakozwe igihe kirekire bikabije, bwari buteguwe neza kandi bwakozwe kuri gahunda,” ku buryo butakwitwa ibikorwa byo kwihimura.

UBWICANYI BW’i GABIRO

Abandi bantu babihagazeho bunze mu rya Kirisitofu, batanga ubuhamya bw’uko Efuperi yatangiye kwica i Gabiro mu kwa kane nyuma gato y’iyicwa rya Habyarimana. Umwe mu batangabuhamya wavuganye n’abacukumbuzi mu gifaransa, akaba yarahoze mu gisirikare cy’inkotanyi yari yarinjiyemo mu mwaka w’1992, yabwiye abo bacukumbuzi ko abaturage b’abahutu bari baravanywe mu byabo ku mihana myinshi yo mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda, bazanywe i Gabiro mu makamyo ya rukururana, baruhukirizwa mu nyubako bitaga inzu ya Habyarimana yari ku birometero nka bitatu uvuye ku kigo cya gisirikare.

“Umukuru wa ba maneko yatoranyije abamaneko n’abarimu ba gisirikare bo guhotora abo bantu bari bazanywe na za rukururana… Abo basirikare bazirikaga akandoyi abagomba kwicwa, bakabajyana umwe umwe mu ‘irimbi’ haruguru y’inzu ya Habyarimana akaba ariho babarasira…

Ubwo buhotozi bwakorwaga ku manywa na nijoro mu gihe cy’ibyumweru bine kugera kuri bitanu byose nahamaze… Ahagana mu mpera z’ukwa kane cyangwa mu ntangiriro z’ukwa gatanu, nyuma y’ibyumweru bibiri by’ubuhotozi budahagarara, umunuko w’abapfu wari watangiye kumvikana mu kigo i Gabiro. Ibimashini bibiri binini nibyo byakoreshwaga mu guhamba intumbi”

Uyu mutangabuhamya yavuze ko yafatanyije n’abandi mu gutwika intumbi hakoreshejwe lisansi ivanze na mazutu maze intumbi zigahinduka ivu, mu ishyamba riri hafi y’ikindi kigo cya gisirikare cy’ahitwa i Gako. Uyu musirikare yahishuye ko umuliyetona witwaga Gasana Silasi, wari ushinzwe umutekano w’umuntu bitaga “Afandi-PC”, ariwe wabaga ahagarikiye ubwicanyi bw’i Gabiro. “Afandi-PC” ni izina ry’ibanga rya gisirikare rya Kagame Pawulo, nk’uko byatangajwe n’abahoze muri Efuperi babajijwe ukwabo kuri iki kibazo. Uwo mutangabugamya yabwiye abacukumbuzi ko uwo Gasana yabaga avugana kenshi na koloneli Nyamvumba Patirike, uyu muri icyo gihe akaba yari umuyobozi w’ibikorwa bya gisirikare n’umukuru w’abarimu ba gisirikare i Gabiro.

Undi muntu wahoze mu gisirikare cy’inkotanyi woherejwe i Gabiro hagati mu kwezi kwa Mata 1994, yabwiye urukiko amagambo akurikira:

“Amakamyo menshi yazaga avuye mu bice byinshi bikikije ikigo. Iyo abakurutu bajyaga gutashya babonaga izo kamyo zihita. Jye nazibonye inshuro ebyiri noherejwe gushaka inkwi, nzibona ndi nko mu kirometero kimwe uvuye ku kigo. Zabaga zifite rukururana imwe cyangwa nyinshi. Zari imodoka zifite amapine 18 cyangwa 24, zitagira pulake. Icyo gihe zanyuze iruhande rwanjye neza. Zari zuzuye abagabo, abagore, abana ndetse n’abo mu za bukuru. Bajyanywe ahantu hafi y’urwunge rw’amazu rw’uwahoze ari umukuru w’igihugu, hafi y’ikibuga cy’indege gito cya Gabiro, maze baricwa.”

Uyu mutangabuhamya yavuze ko izo nzirakarengane zari izo mu majyaruguru y’igihugu, zikaba zarishwe kugirango impunzi z’abatutsi zari mu Buganda zizigarurire amasambu yazo. Ubu buhamya bwagaragaje ubucakura Efuperi ivugwaho bwo kwitirira abahutu n’ubwicanyi batakoze.

“Icyari kigambiriwe cyane muri ubu bwicanyi… kwari ugutegurira amasambu n’urwuri abantu [abatusi] bari barahungiye mu Buganda bariho batahuka. Kugeza n’uyu munsi, umuntu wese [tuvuge umuhutu] watekereza kujya guturayo, akaba ataravuye i Buganda, yaba ari mu kaga ko kuba yashinjwa kuba Interahamwe.”

Abandi bahamya bavuze ku bwicanyi bwo mu kigo cya gisirikare mu nkengero za parike. Uwahoze ari intasi nkuru ya girikare yavuze ko Gabiro yari “indiri y’ubwicanyi” ikomeye. Uyu mwofisiye yagize uruhare mu bikorwa byabereye muri komini Giti mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda, kuva muri Mata 1994, ahantu hatari harishwe umututsi n’umwe muri jenoside. Yavuze ko kuba iyo komini yari itekanye ku batutsi bitabujije Efuperi kuhica abantu bagera ku bihumbi bitatu.

“Abari hagati y’ibihumbi bibiri n’ibihumbi bitatu [abasivili] barishwe aho muri komini Giti, hanyuma bajugunywa mu byobo bya rusange no mu misarani. Ibihumbi by’izindi nzirakarengane byazanywe i Gabiro. Hari indiri y’ubwicanyi, ikaba yari ifite umwihariko wo kuba ahantu hitaruye kandi hafi ya pariki y’Akagera…

…Hari igihe cyageze, inzirakarengane zo mu bice bikikije Giti zitangira kujya zipakirwa mu makamyo ya gisirikare, maze zikerekezwa i Gabiro aho zahitaga zicwa nta kindi.”

UBWICANYI BWO MU MAJYARUGURU Y’U RWANDA MBERE YA JENOSIDE

Hari benshi mu bahoze mu ngabo za Efuperi bahamije ko abaturage b’abahutu bagiye bagabwaho ibitero mbere ya jenoside, by’umwihariko mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda.

Umusirikare umwe yavuze ko iyo Efuperi yabaga ikimara gufata ahantu — aho we yitaga “ahabohojwe”- abahutu bahasangwaga bahitaga bicwa bagatsembwa.

“Efuperi yari yarishyizemo ko abahutu ari abantu badashobotse kandi bagoye igenzura, ko ibyiza ari ukubikiza. Niyo mpamvu itsembabwoko riteguye neza ryashyizwe mu bikorwa muri ibyo ‘bice byabohozwaga.’ Hari uburyo bubiri bwakoreshwaga mu kugera kuri iyo ntego. Hari igihe Efuperi yateguraga ibitero by’ubuhotozi byagwagamo amagana y’inzirakarengane z’abahutu. Ababashaga kurokoka bahitaga bahunga bose bakava aho hantu. Hari n’igihe Efuperi yakoreshaga amayeri yo gukwirakwiza impuha ko hagiye kuza ibitero bikaze, ibyo bigatera abaturage guhunga.”

Umwe mu basirikare ba Efuperi wahoze akorera mu burengerazuba bw’amajyaruguru hafi ya Ruhengeri, yahamije ko mu mwaka w’1993, umugambi wa Inite ye wari uwo “kwica abanzi no guhamba cyangwa se gutwika imibiri yabo.” Uyu musirikare yavuze ko yabaye muri iyo inite kugeza mu kwa munani 1994.

“Intego y’itsinda ryacu yari iyo kwica abahutu. Byumvikane ko n’abagore n’abana bagombaga kwicwa. Twishe abantu benshi, bashobora kuba bagera no ku bihumbi ijana. Ugereranyije Inite yacu yicaga hagati y’abantu 150 na 200 buri munsi. Abantu bicishwaga umugozi (mu ijosi), amashashi ya palasitiki (gupfuka umutwe), inyundo, imishyo, cyangwa ibindi bikoresho byo ku mihana (nk’umupanga). Imibiri yahitaga ijugunywa mu byobo bya rusange, rimwe na rimwe igatwikwa.”

Mu cyegeranyo bakoze, abacukumbuzi b’itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe bakomoje ku buryo bwinshi bukoreshwa na Efuperi mu kwica inzirakarengane, burimo kuniga inzirakarengane hifashishijwe imigozi, kuziheza umwuka hakoreshejwe amashashi, gutonyangiriza umushongi w’amashashi agurumana ku mubiri wazo, no kwahuranya abanyarwanda hakoreshejwe udufuni n’ibyuma by’imbunda.

UKO EFUPERI YACENGEYE MU NTERAHAMWE N’AMAYERI YAYO YO KWIYOBERANYA MU BITERO BYITIRIRWA ABANDI

Nk’uko bivugwa mu buhamya butatu bunyuranye, abasirikare ba Efuperi biyambikaga imyenda ya gisirikare bambuye ingabo z’u Rwanda [za guverinoma y’abahutu], noneho bagakoresha intwaro zo mu bwoko bwatangwaga na leta y’u Rwanda, maze bagakora ubwicanyi biyoberanyije. Umwe mu bahoze mu ngabo za Efuperi yasobanuye atya icyari kigambiriwe mu bitero byagabwe na Efuperi ku baturage b’abasivili muri “zoni tampo” (igice cyakuwemo ingabo zose z’abari bashyamiranye), mbere ya jenoside:

“Akazi ka ngombwa cyane kari ako gutesha umutwe ubutegetsi binyuze mu kwica abatutage. Igihe zari [Inkotanyi] zimaze gusubira inyuma, zakwirakwije impuha ko ubutegetsi [bwa Habyarimana] bwananiwe kurinda abaturage.”

Abo bakomando ba Efuperi, bitwaga “abatekinisiye,” baseseye mu Nterahamwe, bidegembya mu bice byagenzurwaga n’Interahamwe, hanyuma bishora mu kwica abaturage b’abatutsi kuri za bariyeri, nk’uko byahishuwe n’uwabihagazeho. Umusirikare umwe wahoze mu Nkotanyi yaragize ati: “Yewe, bicaga n’abatutsi.”

Undi musirikare wahoze ari Inkotanyi, akaba yarakoreraga muli Kigali kuva muri Mata kugera muri Nyakanga 1994, yiboneye n’amaso ye ibikorwa nk’ibyo. Yabwiye abacukumbuzi ko abakomando ba Efuperi biyambikaga imyenda y’abasirikare ba guverinoma, cyangwa bakiyoberanya nk’insoresore z’Interahamwe, hanyuma bakazamura imihoro bakica abatutsi kuri za bariyeri. Uyu mutangabuhamya yivugiye ko Inkotanyi zanyanyagije abarenga batayo ebyiri z’abakomando nk’abangaba mu murwa mukuru honyine.

“Bagenzuraga ‘ikimuranga’, bakicisha abantu imipanga neza neza nk’uko Interahamwe zabigenzaga, ku buryo nta muntu n’umwe washoboraga kubakeka.”

Ibitero byo kwiyoberanya byarakomeje kugeza nyuma cyane ya jenoside, nk’uko ubuhamya bwinshi bubyemeza. Umuntu umwe wahoze mu gisirikare cy’inkotanyi yari yarinjiyemo mu mwaka w’1991, yavuze ko muri Werurwe 1996 ubwo yari mu modoka imwe na liyetona-koloneli Kabarebe, koloneli Bagire, ndetse na Kagame, yumvise ikiganiro baganira ku mugambi wo gukora ibitero byagombaga gufasha mu kwisobanura ku bitero Efuperi yateganyaga kugaba muri Zayire.

“Kagame yababwiye ko yifuzaga kubona abasirikare be muri Zayire [yaje kwitwa Repubulika iharanira demukarasi ya Kongo] kugira ngo bagabe ibitero ku Rwanda, banateze umutekano mucye mu karere. Kagame yabwiye Kabarebe na Bagire ko nyuma y’icyo gitero bagomba kuzabwira itangazamakuru ko ari Interahamwe zateye u Rwanda. Ni uko ibitero byaje kugabwa mu ma komini yo muri Ruhengeri na Gisenyi. Kagame yababwiraga ko igitero nk’icyo cyari icyo kumufasha kubona uko abeshya amahanga ko hari impamvu igaragara yatumye ingabo ze zinjira muri Zayire.”

GUKOMA IMBARUTSO Y’IMENEKA RY’AMARASO HIFASHISHIJWE IGIKORWA CYO KWICA PEREZIDA W’UMUHUTU

Mu bihe byashize jenoside itararangira, abantu benshi bibwiraga ko indege yahanuwe n’intagondwa z’abahutu zitashakaga kurekura ubutegetsi. Na n’ubu hari abakibyibaza batyo. Nyamara abatangamakuru bahoze muri Efuperi bo babwiye urukiko ko Efuperi yateguye ikanashyira mu bikorwa iraswa ry’indege ya perezida Habyarimana.

Ni benshi mu bahoze mu ngabo za Efuperi bavuze ko mbere gato y’italiki ya gatandatu Mata, Efuperi yataburuye intwaro zari zarahishwe mu bubiko bw’ibanga munsi y’ubutaka, kugira ngo yitegure kwinjira mu ntambara. Abatangabuhamya babwiye itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe ko Kagame n’ibyegera bye bya gisirikare bakoze inama eshatu zo gutegura icyo gitero. Muri raporo ivunaguye, abacukumbuzi b’umuryango w’abibumbye “bemeje” ko koko Efuperi yari ifite itsinda rishinzwe ibijyanye n’ibisasu bya misile birasirwa ku butaka mu guhanura indege. Hatanzwe amakuru ko ibyo bisasu byajyanywe i Kigali bivanywe ku birindiro bikuru bya Efuperi byari mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda hafi y’umupaka w’Ubuganda. Itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe ryagaragaje amazina y’abantu bavugwaho kuba aribo bazanye ibyo bisasu mu murwa mukuru, bakabihisha neza, hanyuma bakaba ari nabo babirasa ku ya gatandatu Mata 1994, kandi ryashyize Kagame Pawulo na Nyamwasa Kayumba ku rutonde rw’abashobora gukorerwa impapuro zo gutabwa muri yombi.

Umutangabuhamya umwe yatangaje ko mbere y’ihanurwa ry’indege, mu ijoro ryo ku ya gatandatu Mata, abarwanyi ba Efuperi basabwe kuba maso no kwitegura intambara umwanya uwo ariwo wose:

“Ku ya gatandatu Mata 1994, isaa moya z’ijoro, Kayonga yatanze itegeko ryo gukenyera no kwambarira urugamba. Ibi byasobanuraga kwitegura kugaba igitero umunota uwo ariwo wose. Kompanyi zose zasohotse mu kigo zikwira mu ndaki zari zikikije ingoro y’abadepite. Nka saa mbiri n’igice z’ijoro, nibwo nabonye indege yari itwaye perezida ituritswa.”

Undi mutangabuhamya yaje kubwirwa n’intasi ya gisirikare ko Efuperi ariyo ubwayo yahanuye indege:

“Yambwiye ko ari Efuperi yarashe indege ya Habyarimana. Gusa yikanzeo ko azimuye, maze ahita antera ubwoba ko azangirira nabi niba ntabitse iryo banga kure.”

Ubu buhamya bushimangira ibyavuye mu rindi perereza ry’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda ryari ryarakozwe mbere mu w’1997, rikozwe n’umunyamategeko witwa Huriga Mikayire (Michael Hourigan), wegeranyije ibimenyetso byerekana ko Efuperi yagize akaboko mu iraswa ry’indege. Madamu Aruburu Luwiza, muri icyo gihe wari umushinjacyaha mukuru w’umuryango w’abibumbye, yahagaritse iryo perereza, anabwira bwana Huriga ko gukurikirana ibyaha by’iterabwoba atari ibintu byari mu nshingano ze; ibi bikaba byarumvikanye kenshi mu biganiro Huriga yagiye atanga aho avaniwe ku kazi ke mu gahinda kenshi, biturutse ku cyemezo cy’uyu mugore. Nyuma y’imyaka myinshi, Aruburu Luwiza yabwiye ikinyamakuru kitwa The Globe and Mail ko leta ya Kagame yatambamiye ubushake bwo gukora iperereza ku bwicanyi bwakozwe na Efuperi, mu gihe urukiko nta mikoro n’ubushobozi rwari rufite kugira ngo iperereza nk’iryo rikorwe mu mutuzo.

Mu w’2000, madamu Del Ponte Karila, wasimbuye Aruburu Luwiza, yasobanuye neza ko yifuzaga gukurikirana Efuperi. Mu ijambo yavuze muri 2002, yaragize ati: “Kuri jye, inzirakarengane ni inzirakarengane, icyaha kiri mu birebwa n’inshingano zanjye nk’umushinjacyaha [w’urukiko rwashyiriweho u Rwanda] ni icyaha; naho ubuvuke, ubwoko cyangwa ibitekerezo bya politiki by’uwakoze icyo cyaha, ntacyo bivuze na mba.”

“Niba ari Kagame waba wararashe indege akayihanura, ni ukuvuga ko Kagame yaba yarabaye umuntu washinjwa jenoside mbere y’abandi bose,” aya akaba ari amagambo yavugiye mu nama mpuzamahanga yateguwe na Sena y’Ubufaransa.

Nyamara mu mwaka w’2003, guverinoma ya leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika bwihanangirije Del Ponte ko niba yihaye gukomeza gahunda ye yo gushinja Efuperi, azirukanwa; ibi akaba yarabihishuye mu gitabo cy’ubuzima bwe. Nyuma y’amezi macye agiranye ikiganiro gikarishye na Petero Porosuperi, icyo gihe wari ambasaderi wa Amerika ushinzwe ibyaha by’intambara, Del Ponte yakuwe mu rukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda. Iyi nyandiko yasohotse mu bushyinguro mu buryo butazwi, yanditswe mu mwaka w’2003, ivuga ko Porosuperi yumvikanye n’urukiko ko inyandiko z’urukiko zijyanye no gukurikirana ibyaha byakozwe na Efuperi — hamwe n’ibimenyetso ku byaha byakozwe na Efuperi uko byakusanyijwe n’abacukumbuzi b’umuryango w’abibumbye — byavanwa mu rukiko rwa loni bikohererezwa guverinoma y’u Rwanda.

Porosuperi ubungubu ni umufatanyabikorwa muri sosiyete yitwa Arent Fox, aho afite inshingano z’ubujyanama no guhagarira leta y’u Rwanda mu bijyanye n’ubwunzi no gukemura amakimbirane n’impaka ku rwego mpuzamahanga, nk’uko bigaragara ku rubuga rw’iyo sosiyete. Porosuperi ntiyashubije ubusabe bwacu bwo kugira icyo abivugaho.

Bwana Jyalo Hasani wasimbuye Del Ponte, akaba ari nawe wakomeje imirimo y’umushinjacyaha mukuru w’urukiko rw’umuryango w’abibumbye kugeza rufunze imiryango mu mwaka w’2015, nta bushake na bucye yagaragaje bwo gushinja Efuperi. Mu mwaka w’2005, yashyigikiye icyemezo cy’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda cyo kudashinja Efuperi, akaba yaranditse ko ingabo za Kagame zari “zarateye intambara yo kwibohora nyuma zigatsinda leta y’abahutu y’icyo gihe, zikanahagarika jenoside.”

Kuva mu mwaka w’1994, n’izindi nzego nyinshi z’umuryango w’abibumbye zakoze iperereza ku bwicanyi Efuperi yakoreye abaturage b’abahutu, haba mu Rwanda cyangwa mu bihugu by’abaturanyi. Izi raporo nazo zararigiswaga, cyangwa zikibasirwa, zikamaganirwa kure na leta ya Kigali. N’ubwo zikomoza no ku bindi byaha bivugwa ko byakozwe na Efuperi, ariko muri rusange zishimangira ibyatahuwe n’itsinda ry’iperereza ridasanzwe, ko Efuperi yakoze ibyaha bigambiriwe byibasiye imbaga y’abahutu, ahantu henshi.

Impuguke y’umunyamerika yitwa Geresoni Roberiti, yagiriwe icyizere n’umuyobozi mukuru w’ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye rishizwe impunzi ku isi, ni uko ihabwa akazi ko kureba niba impunzi z’abahutu zari zarahungiye mu bihugu by’abaturanyi zarashoboraga gutaha ntizigire icyo ziba; ubwo hari mu mpeshyi y’umwaka w’1994. Raporo ya bwana Geresoni yo mu mwaka w’1994 ntiyigeze ishyirwa ahagaragara bibaho, ariko

mu nyandiko yayo yageze hanze mu w’2010, uko yaba yarasohotse mu bubiko bikaba bitarigeze bimenyekana, habonekamo ko abacukumbuzi bageze ku mwanzuro ko ubwicanyi Efuperi yakoreye abahutu mu gihe cya jenoside bwari “bwitondewe kandi bukorwa kuri gahunda”, kandi bwaguyemo abaturage ibihumbi mirongo.

Umukozi mukuru w’ingabo z’umuryango w’abibumye zishinzwe kurinda amahoro ku isi , wari mu Rwanda, yatangaje ko bwana Geresoni yatanze umwanzuro we mu magambo gusa aho ngo yagaragaje ibimenyetso ko Efuperi yari yarakoreye abahutu jenoside “igenderewe, yateguwe neza, kandi yakozwe kuri gahunda.”

Hari Raporo y’umuryango w’abibumbye yiswe Mapingi, ikaba yaracukumbuye amahano yakozwe n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro ishyigikiwe na leta y’u Rwanda muri Repubulika iharanira demukarasi ya Kongo hagati y’ukwezi kwa Werurwe 1993 n’ukwezi kwa Kamena 2003, yanzuye ko ibitero byagabwe ku baturage b’abahutu muri icyo gihugu, “biramutse byemejwe mu rukiko rubifitiye ububasha, bishobora kwitwa ibyaha bya jenoside.” Nyamara nubwo habayeho byinshi byagaragajwe muri raporo Mapingi, Efuperi ntiyigeze na rimwe ikurikiranwa ku byaha byayo muri Repubulika iharanira demukarasi ya Kongo. Impirimbanyi z’uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu nka Mukwege Deni, umuganga w’umunyekongo wegukanye igihembo cyitiriwe Nobeli mu mwaka w’2018 kubera ubwitange bwe mu kuvura abagore bakorewe ihohoterwa rishingiye ku gitsina, ntizahwemye guhamagarira umuryango mpuzamahanga gushyiraho urukiko rugamije gucira imanza abakoze amahano ndengakamere bose no guca umuco wo kudahana muri repubulika iharanira demukarasi ya Kongo. Ntibyumvikana ukuntu ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye rishinzwe uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu ku isi, nyuma y’uko abacukumbuzi baryo banditse Raporo Mapingi ya paji 550, ryahisemo kugira ibanga rikomeye urutonde rw’abakekwaho gukora ayo mahano ndengakamere.

Imbaraga ubufaransa bwashyize mu iperereza ku iraswa rya Habyarimana nazo, mu buryo nk’ubwo, zananiwe kugeza ku mwanzuro wo kwemeza ba nyirugukora icyo cyaha. Mu mwaka w’2006, nyuma y’iperereza ry’igihe kinini, umucamanza w’umufaransa yasohoye inzandiko zo guta muri yombi abantu bakomeye bo muri Efuperi bafite aho bahuriye n’ihotorwa rya perezida w’u Rwanda, iyo ntambwe ikaba yarateye amakimbirane akomeye ku rwego rw’imibanire y’ibihugu hagati y’u Rwanda n’Ubufaransa. Mu Kuboza k’umwaka w’2018, urukiko rw’Ubufaransa rwatesheje agaciro ikirego kuri Efuperi, rwitwaje ko ibimenyetso byatanzwe bidahagije kugira go habe habaho urubanza; hanyuma ku ya gatatu Nyakanga 2020, urukiko rw’ubujurire rw’i Paris mu Bufaransa rwashimangiye icyo cyemezo, maze runemera ko nta subukurwa ry’iperereza rigomba kubaho.

Mu minsi ishize, abashakashatsi bagerageje kumenya umubare w’inzirakarengane z’ubugome n’urugomo, zaba iz’abatutsi cyangwa se iz’abahutu. Muri Mutarama, ikinyamakuru kitwa “Journal of Genocide Research” cyatangaje inyigo nyinshi zagereranyije ko umubare w’abatutsi bishwe muri jenoside uri hagati y’ibihumbi maganatanu n’ibihumbi maganatandatu, mu gihe abahutu bari hagati y’ibihumbi maganane n’ibihumbi maganatanu na mirongwitanu batakaje ubuzima mu myaka ya mirongurwenda. Madamu Marijke Verpoorteni w’umwarimukazi muri kaminuza ya Antwerp, avuga ko kugeza ubu bitarashoboka kumenya umubare wakwizerwa w’abahutu bishwe. Icyo apfa gukora, ni ukugerageza ukugerageza gucishiriza umubare w’abahutu bapfuye mu myaka ya za mirongwikenda, baba abazize intambara n’urugomo, cyangwa se abazize ingaruka z’ikwirakwira rikabije ry’indwara zandura mu nkambi z’impunzi, n’izibihe bibi by’intambara. Muri uko kugenekereza kwe, atanga umubare w’542,000, n’ubwo yiyemerera ubwe ko ikinyuranyo n’umubare wa nyawo gishobora kuba kinini.

Igitangaje ni uko ubwoko bumwe bwonyine aribwo bwemejwe, ku rwego mpuzamahanga, nk’inzirakarengane. Imbere mu Rwanda, inkiko gakondo za gacaca zaciriye urubanza abantu barenga miliyoni imwe n’ibihumbi maganabiri bavugwagaho kugira uruhare muri jenoside y’abatutsi. Ikigega cya leta cyo kugoboka abacitse ku icumu rya jenoside batishoboye nticyemera abahutu bishwe, n’iyo baba barishwe bariho bahisha cyangwa batabara abatutsi. Abahutu ntibemerewe kuririra no kwibuka ababo ku mugaragaro cyangwa gusaba ubutabera ku byaha byakozwe na Efuperi mu Rwanda.

Aho rumariye gufunga imiryango ku mugaragaro, urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda rwahindutse urukiko rw’imanza zitashojwe z’urukiko mpuzamahanga mpanabyaha (MICT mu magambo ahinnye y’icyongereza), runakomeza gushakisha ibikomerezwa by’abahutu bavugwaho kuba abajenosideri. Muri Gicurasi, igipolisi cy’Ubufaransa cyataye muri yombi umusaza w’imyaka mirongwinani n’irindwi y’amavuko, wari warabayeho mu bwihisho mu gihe cy’imyaka makumyabiri n’itandatu. Arashinjwa gushyigikira jenoside atera inkunga y’amafaranga iradiyo y’abahezanguni. Kabuga yahakanye ibyo ashinjwa, ubu akaba ari i “Lahe” mu Buholandi, aho ategereje gucirwa urubanza.

Urukiko rwasabwe kugira icyo ruvuga ku bijyanye no gushinja abayobozi bakuru ba Efuperi, ariko ntirwigeze rusubiza.

journalist

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store